grupy hydroksylowe, estry, ketony b¹dź aldehydy. Po- niewa¿ peptydy zawieraj¹ .. spe³niaj¹cych zadanie zbli¿one do synonimów, uroz- maica tekst i stanowi. W Polsce podobnego zadania podjql sip Polski Komitet Normalizacji. – l aldehydes -aldehydy aliphatic amines -aminy alifatyczne . izopropyloamina ketones -ketony lead y enie gazu . Cenione s ketony cykliczne 0 atomach wftgla, ktore maj zapach piZmowy, S to: salicylan benzylu, alkohol cynamo- nowy, aldehyd cynamonowy, cytral, calkowicie zmetabolizowany w organizmie po spelnieniu swojego zadania.

Author: Tojamuro Akirr
Country: Yemen
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Software
Published (Last): 16 October 2009
Pages: 263
PDF File Size: 14.19 Mb
ePub File Size: 5.56 Mb
ISBN: 950-6-94413-157-5
Downloads: 55786
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Dur

Over here for our carboxylate anion, let’s go ahead and do the same thing here. So let’s draw those in. So over here on the left my students actually made me an ornament. Let’s go ahead and draw everything out, and let’s go ahead and use the same color, so we have carbon double bonded to our oxygen, and put in our ketomy here, and then we have a carbon bonded to a carbon, and then carbon now bonded to an oxygen over here on the right.

And for the next step we can protonate the O-H group.

Formation of hemiacetals and hemiketals

But once again the mechanism is the same until you get to this last step here. We have an amine so this is an enamine. So these electrons in here once you deprotonate, move in here to form our double bond and then these electrons in here move out onto our nitrogen like that to form a different product.

And then you can put your ornament on a chemist’s tree. So we go over here and we draw our product, double bond to our nitrogen and then we have our ethyl group and lone pair of electrons on our nitrogen. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. And alcohols are amphoteric like water, so they can function as acids and donate protons as well.


Utlenianie aldehydów za pomocą odczynnika Tollensa

Zaddania if you oxidize something you are reducing something else, and that something else is going to be your silver cation here. So let’s look at the mechanism to form imines. If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Our nitrogen is bonded to two hydrogens and our Y group and that would make our nitrogen a plus one formal charge and then our oxygen this time would be a negative one formal charge.

So this lone pair of electrons of electrons on the nitrogen forms a bond between this nitrogen and this carbon here. So this is another possibility. So we’re almost to our final product, we would just have to deprotonate our iminium ion. So let me go ahead and put in my electrons. And then you can actually make flat mirrors out of this too.

Formation of hemiacetals and hemiketals (film) | Khan Academy

We know that the geometry at our carbonyl carbon is trigonal planar, so it’s possible the nucelophile could attack from the opposite side and if that happened, then the oxygen would go down relative to the plane. And this is once again done with a primary amine right here. And the hydrogen goes equatorial like that, and then we zadanja have a lone pair of electrons on this oxygen, and then hydrogen and a plus one formal charge. And that’s going to oxidize your aldehyde to a carboxylate anions, let’s go ahead and show the formation of a carboxylate anion here.

So let’s go ahead and draw the results of that acid base reaction. Let’s look at a reaction here.

So the silver ion’s go from Ag Plus to Ag and forming our silver mirror. And since they’re on xadania sides, this would be the trans, they’re trans to each other. So this intermediate is called a carbinolamine. All right, these elctrons in here, between the oxygen and the hydrogen are now on the oxygen, so that takes away the plus one formal charge from the oxygen, and we have this.


Need some hydroxide anHines, aldehyddy sodium hydroxide, and some ammonia. So we xldehydy our oxygen, that’s part of our ring here, drawn in the chair conformation. So this called an enamine, so let me go ahead and write this out here, an “enamine.

A lone pair of electrons on the oxygen takes this proton, aldehyddy these electrons behind, so let’s go ahead and show the results of that. So now the carbon has bonded to an oxygen over here on the right, so no longer bonded to a hydrogen, and that’s an oxidation, that’s an oxidation here. So we know that in our mechanism we lose one of these protons on our amines so let’s say it’s that proton right there. Formation of oximes and hydrazones. We have our carbon double bonded to our nitrogen this time, our nitrogen is still bonded to our Y group.

Visit our Help Pages. This is extremely important, once again for something like glucose. And so making silver mirrors using chemistry is something that was perfected by the German chemist Justus von Liebig in the ‘s.

Medical and Biological Sciences tom XIX nr 4

A lone pair of electrons on that nitrogen and then we have our alkyl groups and so let’s show those electrons here in blue moving in here, off onto our nitrogen. So this is our iminium ion right here. And then if you put some varnish on there you’ll have a zadanja nice silver mirror.