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One woman described her day from the morning when she got up until bedtime. The inclusion criteria for this study were community dwelling older adults aged 65 or above, who for at least the past six months, had lived with long-term persistent or regularly recurring musculoskeletal pain at home and had received home health care services.
This stoic attitude may in part explain why older adults used self talk, where they discussed, argued and negotiated with self and their environment to get themselves to do what they felt they needed and their effort to be less of a burden to family and others. As long as I can manage by myself, I want to do that.
It may be that the older adults in this study were to various degrees stoic while learning to endure pain in daily living. When that time came, they tried their best to alleviate the situation for their family and other caregivers. Thus learning to live with pain became the main theme.
When evaluating their lives, many of them thought that they could not expect much more of life and realized that it was as good as it possibly could be, when taken into account the circumstances of their current situation. There were no detailed descriptions or any guidelines available on how to live with pain in daily life, so trial and error was used until something was found that worked. In addition, findings from research studies have shown that older adults want to spare and not upset their relatives [ 53 ], nor involve or burden their families with their health care needs [ 65 ].
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Impact and intervention, Jones and Bartlett Publishers: J Leey Nurs They continuously tried to be less of a burden and had learned by thinking in certain ways and using various behaviors to accomplish the intended the best they could.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, 19931, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Furthermore, some of the older adults had found out that their state of mood influenced their notion of pain. Even though denied, each participant was offered the opportunity to read the transcribed interview.
Five were married, 12 widowed and two were divorced.
It also was a continuous ongoing process with deliberate choices being made throughout the day, including not just the physical dimension of balancing but also a psychological dimension, one related to the balancing of thoughts and emotions.
Two population-based cross-sectional studies. Research Article Open Access. Topics in advanced practice nursing ejournal 7. Ley D Behavioral geography and the philosophies of meaning, in Behavioral problems in geography revisited, K.
They highlighted the difficulty in obtaining in depth data of this experience with the commonly used designs and questionnaire format. Nurse Educ Today Not infrequently they live with long-term pain, especially musculoskeletal pain, which is associated with increased disability physical, psychological, social and a negative impact on quality of life.
Several of the older adults had learned that nothing good came from complaining, for themselves nor in relation to others. Le times when the prescribed medication was not enough there was a wish for something else to help them to endure.
There was close communication between the first and second author in the phase of labeling codes, sorting them into preliminary themes and naming final themes. Woo J, Leung J, Lau E Prevalence and correlates of musculoskeletal pain in Chinese elderly and the impact on 4-year physical function and le of life.
There were six major steps in the analysis.
However, the opinion of this type of pain as a natural part in the process of aging was prevailing among the older adults in this study. This expectation was established within themselves, but was also felt to be present among family, friends and health 1991 providers.
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Kvale S Den kvalitativa forskningsintervjun [The qualitative research interview] Lund: Furthermore, the close communication between the first and second author in the phase of labeling codes and creating themes and sub-themes strengthened the credibility and dependability of the study. These criteria were used in this study to secure and enhance the quality of findings in the study. To-date researchers have focused primarily on the prevalence and nature of the pain, its treatment and impact rather than on how community dwelling older adults actually experience living with the pain at home.
A major part of balancing the pain involved using medication as prescribed by the physician on a regular basis and taking extra when needed. The presence and intensity of this self talking varied. The older adults in this study tried their best to not burden their family and others while learning to endure pain in daily living. What are the commonalities in how older adults endure long-term musculoskeletal pain in their daily life at home? Limitations in this study include the issue of trustworthiness.
Furthermore, nurses need to take into account that these older adults, to varying degrees, live in a negotiated reality where they are used to making agreements.
The authors argued that nurses need to acknowledge this problem and provide older adults with guidance about strategies for effective pain relief.