This section explains how to typeset vocal music, and make sure that the lyrics will be aligned with the notes of their melody. \musicglyph glyph-name (string). glyph-name is converted to a musical symbol; for example, \musicglyph #”l” selects the natural sign from the. If these automatic decisions are not satisfactory, beaming can be entered explicitly; see Manual beams. Beams must be entered manually if beams are to be.

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Thus, a time signature setting in a later staff will reset custom beaming that was set in an earlier staff. See the snippets for more information. General input and output 3.

1. Musical notation

Changing the default automatic beaming settings for a time signature is described in Time signature. This behavior can be modified to subdivide the beams into sub-groups by setting the property subdivideBeams. The square brackets show the extent of the beam and the braces show which notes are to have their durations modified. By default baseMoment is set to one over the denominator of the time signature. Beaming-rules is a scheme alist or list of pairs that indicates the beam type and the grouping to be applied to beams containing notes with a shortest duration of that beam type.

LilyPond — Notation Reference

Many automatic beaming settings for a time signature contain an entry for beamExceptions. If these automatic decisions are not satisfactory, beaming can be entered explicitly; see Manual beams.

This behavior can be tuned through the auto-knee-gap property. The beamExceptions rules are disabled by.

Feathered beams are used to indicate that a small group of notes should be played at an increasing or decreasing tempo, without changing the overall tempo of the piece. Beam setting changes can be limited to specific contexts. When set, multiple beams will be subdivided at intervals defined by the current value of baseMoment by reducing the multiple beams to just one beam between the sub-groups. The beams of consecutive 16th or shorter notes are, by default, not subdivided. When the time signature is changed, default values of Timing.


When automatic beaming is enabled, the placement of automatic beams is determined by the lilypod properties baseMomentbeatStructureand beamExceptions.

Manual beamsSetting automatic beam behavior.

In some cases it may be necessary to override the automatic beaming algorithm. Even more strict manual control with the beams can be achieved by setting the properties stemLeftBeamCount and stemRightBeamCount. For right-pointing flat flags on lone notes, use paired [] beam indicators and set stemLeftBeamCount to zero see Example 1. Grouping is a scheme list indicating the grouping to be applied to the beam. This behavior is controlled by the context property beamHalfMeasurewhich has effect only in time signatures with 3 in the numerator:.

The beamExceptions rule can override the beatStructure setting if beamExceptions is not reset. In the following example the eight motation notes occupy exactly the same time as a half note, but the first note is one half as long as the last one, with the intermediate notes gradually lengthening. They specify refeerence number of beams to draw on the left and right side, respectively, of the next note.

Special autobeaming rules other than ending a beam on a beat are defined in the beamExceptions property. One way to avoid this problem is to set the time signature in only one staff.

This behavior can be changed as shown:. Beamlets can be set to point in the direction of the beat to which they belong.

It is not possible to add, remove, or change only one of the exceptions. We welcome your aid; please help us by reporting errors to our bug list.

Beam-ending rules specified in the Score context apply to all staves, but can be modified at both Staff and Voice levels:. Changes in automatic beaming settings for a time signature are described in Time signature. By default, each unit of length baseMoment is a single beat. This means that setting the time signature in one staff will affect the beaming of the other staves as well.

If a score ends while an automatic beam has not been lliypond and is still accepting notes, lilypod last beam will not be typeset at lillypond. If a polyphonic voice ends while an automatic beam is still accepting notes, it is not typeset.


LilyPond command index E. By default, the Timing translator is aliased to the Score context. A kneed beam is drawn if the gap is larger than the value of auto-knee-gap plus the width of the beam object which depends on the duration of the notes and the slope of the beam. Setting automatic beam behavior. A beamExceptions value must be complete exceptions list. By default, beamExceptions rules are defined for most common time signatures, so the beamExceptions rules must be disabled if automatic beaming is to be based on baseMoment and beatStructure.

That is, the three or more beams stretch unbroken over entire groups of notes. Note that baseMoment defaults to one over the denominator of the current time signature if not set explicitly.

LilyPond Notation Reference: LilyPond — Notation Reference

Beaming patterns that differ from the automatic defaults can be created; see Setting automatic beam behavior. While this may seem cumbersome, it means that the current beaming settings need not be known in order to specify a new beaming pattern.

If either property is set, its value will be used only once, and then it is erased. If no setting is included in a lower-level context, the setting of the enclosing context will apply. Line breaks are normally forbidden when beams cross bar lines. When multiple voices are used the Staff context must be specified if the beaming is to be applied to all voices in the staff:.

The extent of notwtion feathered beam must be indicated manually using [ and ]and the beam feathering is turned on by specifying a direction to the Beam property grow-direction.